Commit 00b58146 authored by Chloe Kudryavtsev's avatar Chloe Kudryavtsev

[style] Use standard XXX

MAINT -> COMBAK
parent c952cef4
......@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ If you're here, it's because you want to install alpine semi-automatically, or b
Either way, this section of the handbook describes, step by step, how to get a system up and running.
In this section you will find the usage of the various `setup-*` utilities, as well as explanations as to what they do.
// MAINT: kbd-bkeymaps, loadkmap, setup-keymap
// COMBAK: kbd-bkeymaps, loadkmap, setup-keymap
== Keyboard Layout
Keyboard layout is controlled by the `loadkmap` service file.
In `/etc/conf.d/loadkmap` a variable (`KEYMAP`) is defined.
......@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ setup-keymap us us <1>
----
<1> this will copy and use `/usr/share/bkeymaps/us/us.bmap.gz`
// MAINT: setup-hostname
// COMBAK: setup-hostname
== Hostname
Your hostname is the name of your computer.
It is important that hostnames on your local area network be unique.
......@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ Now that you are done, you should apply the hostname using either `rc-service ho
Before you configure the rest of the system, you should set up networking.
This will allow you, for instance, to fetch bootloaders, configure sshd (to continue this setup from the comfort of a different, graphically-enabled machine), and other such desirable features.
// MAINT: setup-interfaces
// COMBAK: setup-interfaces
=== Configure Wireless Networking
If your system does not have an ethernet port (or connection) available, you will need to set up wireless connectivity.
It is strongly recommended that you try to avoid this.
......@@ -72,7 +72,7 @@ However, in the scenario that you have no choice, before you can configure the n
To do so, it is recommended that you use the `setup-interfaces` utility.
In it, you should select your wireless interface when prompted (it will usually be called something like `wlan0`) and answer the questions (for more details on that, see the next section).
// MAINT: setup-interfaces running wpa_supplicant by hand
// COMBAK: setup-interfaces running wpa_supplicant by hand
[CAUTION]
====
This will *not* persist across a reboot.
......@@ -148,7 +148,7 @@ Once all of the above is accounted for, you can now start the networking configu
This is done by running `rc-service networking start`.
If desired, you can also set it to load during boot, using `rc-update add networking boot`.
// MAINT: musl/tzdata
// COMBAK: musl/tzdata
== Timezone
Unless you live in the GMT timezone, you may be interested in having your device know where you (or it) is located, time-wise.
On musl, the timezone is defined by the `TZ` environment variable, which should either mention a POSIX-style timezone, directly point at a file, or have a standard `Area/SubArea` definition, which must be found under `/usr/share/zoneinfo`, `/share/zoneinfo` or `/etc/zoneinfo`.
......@@ -167,7 +167,7 @@ install -Dm 0644 /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/New_York /etc/zoneinfo/America/New_
----
// TODO: alpine seems to have relics from uclibc, things like /etc/TZ, and the lack of $TZ
// MAINT: environment variable handling
// COMBAK: environment variable handling
Finally, you will need to add the TZ environment variable to your system.
You can do this by running the following, with the same timezone example:
......@@ -180,7 +180,7 @@ echo "export TZ='$TZ'" >> /etc/profile.d/timezone.sh
Alternatively, you may use `setup-timezone`, which will copy the file over for you.
// MAINT: setup-timezone, baselayout
// COMBAK: setup-timezone, baselayout
[WARNING]
====
`setup-timezone`, as it is now, will *not* set up the `TZ` environment variable.
......@@ -190,17 +190,17 @@ This is a technical difference, that you likely do not need to worry about, but
== Repositories
If you want to be able to install packages, you're going to want to have some repositories.
// MAINT: alpine images
// COMBAK: alpine images
By default, your boot medium will come with a built-in repository that is on the boot medium itself.
However, now that you have networking, you may wish to install packages outside the relatively small pool available on the boot medium.
Repositories for the package manager (`apk`) are configured in a file named `/etc/apk/repositories`, and valid signing keys are located under `/etc/apk/keys/`.
Your boot medium should come with valid pre-configured keys, but no external repositories.
// MAINT: mirrors
// COMBAK: mirrors
Currently, you can see the list of available mirrors and their status over at https://mirrors.alpinelinux.org/[mirrors.alpinelinux.org].
NOTE: Do not worry about the lack of "https" in the mirrors - all packages are signed, so as long as you do not add any untrustworthy keys, your package manager will refuse to install any illegitimate packages.
// MAINT: release, "default" repositories
// COMBAK: release, "default" repositories
Here is an example `/etc/apk/repositories` file, that uses all stable repositories from the primary mirror of the latest release version:
[source]
......@@ -208,7 +208,7 @@ Here is an example `/etc/apk/repositories` file, that uses all stable repositori
include::example$repositories.apk[]
----
// MAINT: setup-apkrepos
// COMBAK: setup-apkrepos
Assuming your network configuration is done, you may also use the `setup-apkrepos` utility, which will fetch a list of valid repositories, and give you a choice between them (and options such as "random").
== Root Password
......@@ -217,7 +217,7 @@ This is easy to do - simply run `passwd` and follow the prompts.
NOTE: You will not see your own typing - this is normal, it is obscured to stop people from being able to peek at your screen, even if just to see the number of characters in your passwords.
// MAINT: setup-sshd
// COMBAK: setup-sshd
== SSH
SSH is very convenient to have - it means you can be in the comfort of your terminal emulator, rather than a raw getty (the full-screen emulator that shows up when booting up an alpine install medium).
Now that we have networking, we can set up an ssh daemon.
......@@ -231,7 +231,7 @@ WARNING: By default, you cannot use SSH to log in as root using a password.
Note that this can also be done for you by the `setup-sshd` utility - it will ask you which one you would like, install, start and enable it for you.
// MAINT: setup-ntp
// COMBAK: setup-ntp
== NTP
It may be useful to make sure that your clock is correct.
This can be achieved by using an NTP daemon.
......@@ -239,7 +239,7 @@ Some of the common ones are `chronyd` and `openntpd`.
You can install them by using `apk add name`, where name is the desired daemon.
After that, you may want to start it, and possibly enable it - using `rc-service name start` and `rc-update add name` respectively.
// MAINT: chronyd PID file bug
// COMBAK: chronyd PID file bug
[WARNING]
====
Currently, `chronyd` is bugged.
......@@ -249,7 +249,7 @@ As such, temporarily, it is recommended that you use the `setup-ntp` script and
Note that this can also be done for you by the `setup-ntp` utility - it will ask you which one you would like, install, start and enable it for you.
// MAINT: parted availability, fdisk, setup-disk
// COMBAK: parted availability, fdisk, setup-disk
== Partitioning Your Disk
=== `setup-disk`
......@@ -257,7 +257,7 @@ The `setup-disk` utility can do the rest of this work for you.
It will make a partition table on your hard drive, partition it as per a specification, format the partitions with filesystems, set up the base system, and install the bootloader.
This section describes how to use it, as well as the various tweakables.
// MAINT: setup-disk stability
// COMBAK: setup-disk stability
[CAUTION]
====
As it is currently, setup-disk should work for typical single-disk non-UEFI setups.
......@@ -271,7 +271,7 @@ However, in other cases, it is recommended that you at least consider doing this
These are not covered in this handbook.
====
// MAINT: setup-disk
// COMBAK: setup-disk
==== Options and Settings
`setup-disk` is configured through command line arguments, as well as environment variables.
In most cases, if you want setup-disk to do all the work for you, you should not need to specify anything beyond `-m sys`, as in `setup-disk -m sys`.
......@@ -279,7 +279,7 @@ This is an incomplete listing - it lacks anything mentioning non-disk installati
// TODO: add xref to setup-disk manual, developer handbook page on it
If you need those, head over to the manual or developer pages.
// MAINT: setup-disk defaults and allowed values
// COMBAK: setup-disk defaults and allowed values
.Environment Variables:
BOOTFS:: The filesystem to use on `/boot`, defaults to ext4, also allows ext2, ext3, (flat) btrfs, xfs and vfat (required on UEFI).
BOOTLOADER:: Bootloader to use. Defaults to syslinux, but also allows using grub, unless UEFI is used, in which case grub is required.
......@@ -309,7 +309,7 @@ Because of this, that is the utility we will be using in this section.
Begin by installing it, using `apk add parted`.
This is also the part of the handbook in which you must determine whether you need (or want) to use UEFI.
// MAINT: /sys/firmware/efi
// COMBAK: /sys/firmware/efi
This decision will be left up to you, but you can determine whether or not you are currently booted using UEFI by checking if the `/sys/firmware/efi` folder exists.
In case this is difficult, you may use the following snippet to get a direct answer:
......@@ -442,7 +442,7 @@ mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3 <2>
<1> This last section creates the filesystems. In this example, we use ext4 for `/boot` and `/` - you can use any of the supported filesystems.
<2> {ex_3_sda3}
// MAINT: setup-disk
// COMBAK: setup-disk
=== Finalizing
Now that your filesystems are formatted, you have to mount them under a mountpoint (usually `/mnt`).
"Mounting" a filesystem is like assigning a drive letter to a hard drive, but can be done under any directory.
......
......@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ A very common consumer architecture is known as x86_64 - the traditional Intel x
If you are installing Alpine to a traditional computer, this is most likely what you have.
However, Alpine supports several other architectures for to-disk installation purposes:
// MAINT: supported/relevant arhitectures
// COMBAK: supported/relevant arhitectures
x86_64:: the most common desktop, laptop and server architecture
x86:: the older variant of x86_64, increasingly more rare, and limited to 4gb of ram
ppc64le:: OpenPower-based systems, such as IBM's POWER8
......@@ -16,13 +16,13 @@ s390x:: IBM Z-Systems and Mainframes
Under some circumstances, you may also use armhf and aarch64 architectures - relevant to ARM chips, 32bit and 64bit respectively, the latter of which may support UEFI.
// MAINT: downloads page
// COMBAK: downloads page
=== Image Type
Alpine offers a variety of downloadable https://alpinelinux.org/downloads/[images].
The image varieties relevant to this handbook are as follows:
// MAINT: image varieties
// COMBAK: image varieties
standard::
A minimal installation image.
Requires networking.
......@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@ If you aren't sure what image to use, you should use extended, assuming your arc
Otherwise, you should use the standard image.
== Downloading
// MAINT: downloads page
// COMBAK: downloads page
=== Obtaining the Chosen Media
Image downloads are available at https://alpinelinux.org/downloads/[alpinelinux.org].
Press the button under your chosen image type, that corresponds to your target architecture.
......@@ -185,7 +185,7 @@ You can then find the line starting with `linux`, and add or remove parameters f
==== [Isolinux] Modifying Kernel Command Line
Under isolinux, there is no graphical editor, but you can specify the kernel command line directly.
// MAINT: primary image name
// COMBAK: primary image name
To do so, you must select the correct label (for example, `vanilla` or `virt`), and add your parameters there.
For example, if you wanted to add `rootflags=noatime` to your kernel command line, your isolinux prompt should look as so:
......
// MAINT: this whole page, on alpine-conf
// COMBAK: this whole page, on alpine-conf
= `setup-alpine`
Now that you are booted in, you can log-in without a password as the root user.
......
......@@ -7,13 +7,13 @@ This handbook contains installation instructions for a typical user, as well as
This handbook will focus on the traditional "to disk" style of installation, and target primarily desktop and server systems.
If your use-case is different, you should be sufficiently familiar with Linux, and can consult the Developer Handbook and manual pages for further details.
// MAINT: mailing lists and irc channels
// COMBAK: mailing lists and irc channels
== Where to Get Help?
If you run into problems, you can ask for help in the irc://chat.freenode.net/#alpine-linux[#alpine-linux] irc channel, available on the freenode network.
You can also send an email to the mailto:alpine-user@lists.alpinelinux.org[Alpine-User] mailing list.
// MAINT: irc channels
// COMBAK: irc channels
== How to Contribute?
If you believe you can help with the documentation project, or have a specific improvement in mind, you can join the irc://chat.freenode.net/#alpine-docs[#alpine-docs] irc channel, to offer help or submit your patch.
......
// MAINT: apk-tools - whole page
// COMBAK: apk-tools - whole page
= Working with the Alpine Package Keeper (`apk`)
`apk` is the Alpine Package Keeper - the distribution's package manager.
......@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@ It is used to manage the packages (software and otherwise) of the system.
It is the primary method for installing additional software, and is available in the `apk-tools` package.
== Normal Usage
// MAINT: repositories and versions
// COMBAK: repositories and versions
=== Repositories and Mirrors
`apk` fetches information about available packages, as well as the packages themselves from various mirrors, which contain various repositories.
Sometimes, those terms are used interchangeably.
......@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ main:: Officially supported packages that are reasonable to expect to be in a ba
community:: Packages from testing that have been tested. Support cycles are 6 months long.
testing:: New, broken, or outdated packages that need testing. No support for this repository is implied. It is not present in release snapshots.
// MAINT: versioning scheme, edge
// COMBAK: versioning scheme, edge
// TODO: verify
Releases are versioned using a versioning scheme somewhat reminiscent of semantic versioning.
However, one special release exists called "edge" - this is a "rolling" release.
......@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ Repositories are configurable in the `/etc/apk/repositories` file.
Each line corresponds to a repository.
The format is as follows:
// MAINT: dl-cdn.alpinelinux.org
// COMBAK: dl-cdn.alpinelinux.org
[source]
----
[@tag] [protocol][/path][/release]/repository
......@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@ NOTE: This example uses the `http://` protocol. `ftp://` and `https://` protocol
// TODO: xref to installation part that's relevant
NOTE: This file should already have been been partially populated when you installed alpine.
// MAINT: apk-search and pkgs.alpinelinux.org
// COMBAK: apk-search and pkgs.alpinelinux.org
=== Searching for Packages
In order to know what package to install, one must be able to find packages.
Alpine has a specialized https://pkgs.alpinelinux.org[web interface] dedicated to looking through various available packages.
......@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@ apk search -e so:libsqlite3.so.* <4>
<3> You can exclude partial matches using `-e`.
<4> You can specify that what you're searching for is a library using the `so:` prefix (or the `cmd:` prefix for commands, and `pc:` prefix for pkg-config files) - it will work with `-e` (in fact, the prefix is required for this use-case if `-e` is used).
// MAINT: apk-add
// COMBAK: apk-add
=== Installing Packages
Once you know what package you want to install, you must know how to do that.
Apk's `add` command is more strict than the `search` command - wildcards are not available, for instance.
......@@ -113,14 +113,14 @@ apk add pc:msgpack <5>
NOTE: If `apk add` finds multiple matching packages (for example multiple `cmd:` matches), it will select the one with the highest version number.
// MAINT: apk-update, apk-upgrade
// COMBAK: apk-update, apk-upgrade
=== Upgrading Packages
Updating the system using apk is very simple.
One need only run `apk upgrade`.
Technically, this is two steps: `apk update`, followed by `apk upgrade` proper.
The first step will download an updated package index from the repositories, while the second step will update all packages in <<_world>>, as well as their dependencies.
// MAINT: update-conf
// COMBAK: update-conf
`apk` will avoid overwriting files you may have changed.
These will usually be in the `/etc` directory.
Whenever `apk` wants to install a file, but realizes a potentially edited one is already present, it will write its file to that filename with `.apk-new` appended.
......@@ -129,7 +129,7 @@ Simply invoking it normally with present you with the difference between the two
NOTE: `apk update` is only ran once your cache is invalidated, which by default happens every 4 hours.
// MAINT: apk-info
// COMBAK: apk-info
=== Querying Package Information
In some cases, it may be useful to inspect packages or files to see various details.
For this use, the `info` subcommand exists.
......@@ -137,10 +137,10 @@ It may be used on any package, installed or not, though the information on the l
It may also be used with specific flags on files.
By default, `info` will list the package description, webpage and installed size.
// TODO: link manual for apk(1)
// MAINT: apk-info: `apk info -h` output
// COMBAK: apk-info: `apk info -h` output
For more details (such as a list of flags the subcommand supports), you can use the `apk info -h` output's "Info options" section or see the manual page.
// MAINT: apk-del
// COMBAK: apk-del
=== Removing Packages
Often, it is desirable to remove a package.
This can be done using the `del` subcommand, with a base syntax that is identical to the `add` subcommand.
......@@ -148,7 +148,7 @@ This can be done using the `del` subcommand, with a base syntax that is identica
NOTE: If you added a package using the `cmd:`, `so:` or `pc:` virtual, you must specify the same virtual to remove them.
NOTE: Removing a package will automatically remove all of its dependencies that are otherwise not used.
// MAINT: apk-del: apk del -r
// COMBAK: apk-del: apk del -r
The `del` subcommand also supports the `-r` flag, which will remove all packages that depend on the package being removed as well, rather than error out due to the package being needed.
=== Cleanup
......@@ -167,7 +167,7 @@ If you've edited it by hand, you may run `apk add` with no arguments to bring th
NOTE: Virtuals like `cmd:`, `so:` and `pc:` will appear as such in your world file - this is why using `so:` is discouraged - the soname might get bumped!
// MAINT: apk-add -t
// COMBAK: apk-add -t
=== Virtuals
While `cmd:`, `so:` and `pc:` packages are automatically created virtuals, you can create your own as well.
These allow for quick removal of purpose-specific packages.
......
// MAINT: openrc, whole page
// COMBAK: openrc, whole page
= Working with OpenRC
OpenRC is the init system used in alpine.
......@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ If in doubt, use the canonical name, as is shown in this document.
== Normal Usage
=== Manipulating Services
// MAINT: openrc, whole page
// COMBAK: openrc, whole page
==== Runtime Service Manipulation
You manipulate services on a running system using the `rc-service` command.
This allows you to start, stop, and check the status of a given service, amongst other things.
......@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@ Only run the specified command if the service is currently started.
NOTE: Services may define additional commands you can use. See more on this in <<_custom_service_commands>>.
// MAINT: rc-update
// COMBAK: rc-update
==== On-Boot Service Manipulation
OpenRC operates under a system called "runlevels".
More on that in <<_switching_runlevels>> and <<_custom_runlevels>>.
......@@ -74,7 +74,7 @@ However, some services need configuration applied to them as part of the launch
This can be done in the `/etc/conf.d` directory, under the name of the service in question.
For example, for a service named "base", the configuration file would be `/etc/conf.d/base`.
// MAINT: rc-status
// COMBAK: rc-status
=== System Status
The `rc-status` utility is a fast way to view the current state of your system's services.
By default, it will list all the services in the current runlevel.
......@@ -142,7 +142,7 @@ Their usage is identical to that of the built-in ones.
You can look inside the `init.d` script at various `extra*commands` variables which give a listing of the available ones.
// TODO: what's extra_started_commands etc?
// MAINT: the insanity in sh/opnenrc-init.sh.in
// COMBAK: the insanity in sh/opnenrc-init.sh.in
=== Extended `conf.d` Names
There are 4 total files that may play a role in the configuration of a service.
Assume that `base` stands for the name of the base server, `ext` is the extension (as per <<_multi_services>>) and `runlevel` is the runlevel it's in.
......
......@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ sudo command with arguments <5>
<4> You may need to log out and log back in for the group listing to update. `sudo -i` is the equivalent of `su -` otherwise.
<5> This will run "command with arguments" as the default `sudo` user - root.
// MAINT: alpine-desktop, alpine-conf (setup-xorg-base)
// COMBAK: alpine-desktop, alpine-conf (setup-xorg-base)
== Getting a Graphical Environment
Most people will often want something more than just a raw tty.
This section describes how to get a supported graphical interface, as well as some additional notes (for example, how to use a different type of GUI).
......@@ -70,7 +70,7 @@ This will automatically detect what kind of gpu is installed, and install the ap
NOTE: If this does not work for you, or you encounter other issues, as per usual, feel free to ask for help in the official support channels.
// MAINT: alpine-desktop contents
// COMBAK: alpine-desktop contents
Once that is done, you can install the recommended and supported graphical setup by installing (and thus running) `apk add alpine-desktop`.
This will install several system-related utilities, as well as the `lxdm` Desktop Manager and `xfce4` Desktop Environment.
In case you want a different DE or DM, you should install those now.
......
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