main/sudo: backport patch to fix crash on old kernels

In postmarketOS (which uses Alpine's repositories to a large degree), we
unfortunately have many devices that use old kernels without the
getrandom() syscall. This backports a merged patch from upstream that
works around this by using sudo's own implementation of getentropy()
instead of the one from your C standard library as the default on Linux.
8 jobs for !26610 with sudo-unlasted-kernel in 2 minutes and 39 seconds (queued for 3 seconds)
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